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Roma History Factsheets

Multiple Authors   •   Council of Europe

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Levels and forms of education

Primary Education

Lower Secondary Education

Upper Secondary Education

Post Secondary Education

Tertiary Education

Teacher Training

Other Levels and Forms of Education

Resource type

Conceptual or themathic publications

Worksheets and informative texts

Primary Sources

Audio-visual materials (photographs, videos, movies, audio files)


Historic approaches concerned

Cultural History

Economic History

Global History

Local History

Political History

Social History

Transnational History

Historic period

Ancient History

5th Century

6th Century

7th Century

8th Century

9th Century

10th Century

11th Century

12th Century

13th Century

14th Century

15th Century

16th Century

17th Century

18th Century

19th Century

20th Century

Countries or areas concerned

Cross-regional, Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe, Northern Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe, Türkiye, Russian Federation, France, Spain, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania


Albanian, English, French, German, Italian, Romani, Romanian, Serbian, Swedish


These factsheets deal with the history of the Roma, an European nation with Indian roots. The Indian origin and affiliation of the Roma is most obvious linguistically, by the language still spoken by many members of this heterogeneous ethnicity. The Roma consist of various groups, which are labelled with different ethnonymes – self designations as well as external designations: Arlije, Calé, Gurbet, Kaale,Kalderaš, Lovara, Manuš, Sepečides, Sinti, Ursari, etc.; many groups also use the self-designation Roma. Usually all these groups are summarised – sometimes even together with population groups of non Indian origin – by the pejorative denomination “Gypsies”, which – out of descriptive reasons and without negative connotations – is sometimes also used in the factsheets. These are the themes for the factsheet: 1. From India to Europe 2. Arrival in Europe 2.1 Ottoman Empire 2.2 Wallachia and Moldavia 2.3 Central Europe 2.4 Western Europe 3.1 Austro-Hungarian Empire 3.2 Russian Empire 3.3 The Great “Gypsy” Round-up in Spain 4.0 Second Migration 4.1 Austria and Hungary 1850-1938 4.2 Soviet Union before WW2 5.0 Holocaust 5.1 Concentration Camps 5.2 The Nazi Period in Italy 5.3 Internment in France 5.4 The Nazi Period in the Baltic States 5.5 Deportations from Romania 5.6 The Situation of Concentration Camp Survivors 6.1 State Policies under Communism 6.2 Institutionalisation and Emancipation 7.0 Third Migration


Roma history

Roma Holocaust

Roma genocide

Roma and Travellers


Austro-Hungarian empire

Ottoman empire

Soviet Union

Nazi Germany