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Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe   •   1999

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Individual Resource

Levels and forms of education

Lower Secondary Education

Upper Secondary Education

Resource type

Recommendations, Resolutions, Decisions

Historic approaches concerned

Cultural History

Economic History

Gender History

Political History

Social History

Transnational History

Historic period

No data

Countries or areas concerned

Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe




(Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 19 January 1999, at the 656th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies) The Council of Europe's Committee of Ministers issued Recommendation No. R (99) 2 regarding secondary education. The recommendation emphasises the role of secondary education in promoting democratic citizenship, mutual respect, tolerance, and the combat against racism and anti-Semitism. It highlights the need for curricular reforms, an interdisciplinary approach, and key competences, including political and social competence and proficiency in the emergent information society. The European dimension in secondary education is encouraged to equip young people for a multicultural and open Europe and develop awareness of a common European heritage while respecting national, regional, and local identities. The document calls for active teacher involvement, diversified teaching methods, and the inclusion of a European dimension in both curriculum and teacher training.


Council of Europe

Committee of Ministers

History teaching

European dimension

Democratic Citizenship

Curriculum Reform