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Recommendation CM/Rec(2020)2 - Inclusion of the history of Roma and/or Travellers[1] in school curricula and teaching materials

Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe   •   2020

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Levels and forms of education

Primary Education

Lower Secondary Education

Upper Secondary Education

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Teacher Training

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Recommendations, Resolutions, Decisions

Historic approaches concerned

Art History

Cultural History

Economic History

Gender History

Global History

Intellectual History

Local History


Political History

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Countries or areas concerned

Central Europe, Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe




Adopted 1 July 2020. This recommendation addresses the inclusion of the history of Roma and/or Travellers in school curricula and teaching materials. It emphasizes the importance of acknowledging the longstanding presence of Roma and Travellers in Europe and recognizing their contributions to European cultural heritage, as well as the transmission of their history and memory through oral narratives. The document highlights the significance of teaching about the genocide perpetrated against Roma and Travellers during World War II and its role in combating hatred, discrimination, prejudice, Holocaust denial, and revisionism. It encourages a multi-perspective approach to teaching Roma and Travellers' history, with the goal of building tolerance, respect, and understanding. The recommendation outlines principles and proposed actions to achieve these objectives, such as incorporating Roma history into various school subjects, revising textbooks, and providing teacher training. It also emphasizes raising awareness about the Roma Holocaust and other historical persecutions through educational activities, research, and international cooperation. The recommendation aims to foster mutual respect, intercultural dialogue, and knowledge of the culture, history, and languages of Roma and Travellers, contributing to the elimination of prejudice and promoting human rights and diversity in Europe.


Council of Europe

Committee of Ministers

History education

Roma and Travellers



Roma genocide